Key Concepts: The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing

By: Al Ries & Jack Trout

  1. The Law of Leadership – better to be first than better
  2. The Law of Category – if you can’t be first set up a new category to be first in
  3. The Law of the Mind – better to be first in the mind that in the marketplace
  4. The Law of Perception – Marketing is not a battle of products it is a battle of perception
  5. The Law of Focus – The most powerful concept in marketing is owning a word in the prospect’s mind
  6. The Law of Exclusivity – Two companies cannot own the same word in the prospect’s mind
  7. The Law of the Ladder – The strategy to use depends on which rung you occupy on the ladder
  8. The Law of Duality – In the long run, every market becomes a two-horse race.
  9. The Law of the Opposite – If you are shooting for second place, you strategy is determined by the leader
  10. The Law of Division – Over time a category will divide and become two or more categories.
  11. The Law of Perspective – Marketing effects take place over an extended period of time
  12. The Law of Extension – There’s an irresistible pressure to extend the equity of the brand
  13. The Law of Sacrifice- You have to give up something in order to get something
  14. The Law of Attributes – For every attribute, there is an opposite, effective attribute
  15. The Law of Candor –  When you admit a negative, the prospect will give you a positive
  16. The Law of Singularity – In each situation, only one move will produce substantial results
  17. The Law of Unpredictability – Unless you write your competitors’ plans you can’t predict the future
  18. The Law of Success – Success often leads to arrogance, and arrogance to failure
  19. The Law of Failure – Failure is to be expected and accepted
  20. The Law of Hype – The situation is often the opposite of the way it appears in the press
  21. The Law of Acceleration – Successful programs are not built on fads, they are build on trends
  22. The Law of resources – Without adequate funding an idea won’t get off the ground